The 12 subspecies

12 亞種

This Dynastes hercules hercules is 145 mm.

戟大兜蟲 赫克力士原名亞種

Dynastes hercules hercules Linnaeus 1758

產地 Distribution

加勒比海中的瓜德羅普以及多米尼克島。

islands of Guadeloupe and Dominica in the Lesser Antilles.

特徵 Characteristics

胸角之角突出現於距離根部大約全角長1/3的距離。至少2個頭角突,並無傾斜現象。少數個體有呈鋸齒狀的頭角突。角尖微微往前斜出角末沒有現象。

thoracic denticles located about 1/3 into the thoracic horn. At least two cephalic denticles, uninclined. Occasional individuals have three or saw-shaped cephalic denticles. Cephalic point slightly inclined forward. Apex unhooked.

 

This Dynastes hercules lichyi is 140 mm.

戟大兜蟲 利奇氏亞種

Dynastes hercules lichyi Lachaume 1985

產地 Distribution

委內瑞拉西半部、哥倫比亞中央山脈、厄瓜多中央山脈、祕魯、玻利維亞北部。本亞種棲息於1,000公尺以上山區。

western half of Venezuela, central mountain chain of Colombia, central mountain chain of Ecuador, Peru, north Bolivia. This subspecies lives in regions over 1,000 meters above sea level.

特徵 Characteristics

胸角之角突出現於距離根部大約全角長1/3的距離。大部分個體只有1個頭角突,而且微微往頭部傾斜。少數個體有2個或是呈鋸齒狀的頭角突。極少數個體不長頭角突。角尖明顯往前斜出,並經常呈片狀。角末有或無回現象。

thoracic denticles located about 1/3 into the thoracic horn. Usually only one cephalic denticle, slightly inclined backwards. Occasional individuals have two or saw-shaped cephalic denticles. Very few individuals have no cephalic denticle. Cephalic point inclined forward and often slab-shaped. Apex hooked or unhooked.

 

This Dynastes hercules ecuatorianus is 130 mm.

戟大兜蟲 厄瓜多亞種

Dynastes hercules ecuatorianus Ohaus 1913

產地 Distribution

加厄瓜多東部、哥倫比亞南部、祕魯北部、巴西西北部。

east Ecuador, south Colombia, north Peru, northeast Brazil.

特徵 Characteristics

胸角之角突出現於距離根部大約全角長1/5的距離。1個、2個,或是沒有頭角突,並無傾斜現象。少數個體3-4個頭角突。角尖微微往前斜出角末有或無回現象。擁有2個頭角突的厄瓜多亞種容易和原名亞種搞混。胸角角突位置超過頭角突位置者為原名亞種。厄瓜多亞種的翅鞘時常呈現黃色,並且只有少許斑點。

thoracic denticles located about 1/5 into the thoracic horn. Zero, one, or two cephalic denticles, uninclined. Occasional individuals have three or four cephalic denticles. Cephalic point slightly inclined forward. Apex hooked or unhooked. Individuals with two cephalic denticles often confused with D. h. hercules. Those with thoracic denticles placed further than cephalic denticles belong to D. h. hercules. D. h. ecuatorianus often exhibits yellow elytra with minimal markings.

 

This Dynastes hercules septentrionalis is 142 mm. This beetle belongs to Jason Chen.

戟大兜蟲 北方亞種

Dynastes hercules septentrionalis Lachaume 1985

產地 Distribution

墨西哥南部、瓜地馬拉、宏都拉斯、尼加拉瓜、哥斯大黎加、巴拿馬北部。

south Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, north Panama.

特徵 Characteristics

胸角之角突出現於距離根部大約全角長1/61/7的距離。1個頭角突,並呈塊狀,有稍微往頭部傾斜。角尖微微往前斜出角末有或無回現象。

thoracic denticles located about 1/7 into the thoracic horn. One cephalic denticle, block shaped, slightly inclined backwards. Cephalic point slightly inclined forward. Apex hooked or unhooked.

 

This Dynastes hercules occidentalis is 141 mm. This beetle belongs to Ko Hsin-ping.

戟大兜蟲 西方亞種

Dynastes hercules occidentalis Lachume 1985

產地 Distribution

巴拿馬南部、哥倫比亞西部、厄瓜多西北部。

south Panama, west Colombia, northwest Ecuador.

特徵 Characteristics

胸角之角突出現於距離根部大約全角長1/61/7的距離。1個頭角突,大部分尖狀,少數塊狀,稍微往頭部傾斜。角尖明顯往前斜出,並經常呈片狀。角有回現象。

thoracic denticles located about 1/7 into the thoracic horn. One cephalic denticle, usually pointed, few block-shaped, slightly inclined backwards. Cephalic point inclined forward and often slab-shaped. Apex hooked.

 

This Dynastes hercules reidi is 79 mm. This photograph was taken by Dr. Everardo Grossi.

戟大兜蟲 瑞德氏亞種

Dynastes hercules reidi Chalmeau 1977

產地 Distribution

加勒比海中的聖路西亞以及馬丁尼克島

islands of Saint Lucia and Martinique in the Lesser Antilles.

特徵 Characteristics

小型亞種。1個、2個,或是沒有頭角突。無頭角突個體被稱為「瑞德氏型」,有頭角突個體被稱為「巴德里氏型」。一般個體胸角和頭角等長。超大個體胸角稍微比頭角長。

small subspecies. Zero, one, or two cephalic denticles. Individuals with no cephalic denticle are calledreidi type.Individuals with cephalic denticle are calledbaudrii type.Thoracic and cephalic horn usually equal length. Thoracic horn slightly longer than cephalic horn in giant specimens.

瑞德氏亞種在「沉醉兜鍬」第一次出版的2001年被視為已經絕種或是極度瀕臨絕種的亞種。但是在今天已經被視為普遍種。人工繁殖的力量真是不可小覷。

Note: D. h. reidi was regarded as extinct or highly endangered subspecies in 2001. Today, they are common in captivity. All thanks to captive breeding.

 

This Dynastes hercules trinidadensis is 119 mm. This beetle belongs to Lee Buo-hao.

戟大兜蟲 千里達亞種

Dynastes hercules trinidadensis Chalumeau et Reid 1995

產地 Distribution

千里達島、拖貝哥島、委內瑞拉東北部。

islands of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast Venezuela.

 

This Dynastes hercules bleuzeni is 135 mm. This photograph was taken by Dr. Everardo Grossi.

戟大兜蟲 布魯森氏亞種

Dynastes hercules bleuzeni Silvestre et Dechambre 1995

產地 Distribution

委內瑞拉東部。

east Venezuela.

 

This Dynastes hercules morishimai is 122 mm. This beetle belongs to Ko Hsin-ping.

戟大兜蟲 森島氏亞種

Dynastes hercules morishimai Nagai 2002

產地 Distribution

玻利維亞中西部。

midwest Bolivia.

特徵 Characteristics

以上3亞種長得和原名亞種及厄瓜多亞種十分相似。有時候產地是唯一區分們的方式。整體上而言,千里達亞種與布魯森氏亞種的翅鞘偏暗黃色,而森島氏亞種的翅鞘偏亮黃色布魯森氏亞種的頭角尖經常出現長條狀。有些學者視千里達亞種和布魯森氏亞種為同亞種。

The above three subspecies look remarkably similar to D. h. hercules and D. h. ecuatorianus. Sometimes origin is the only way to tell them apart. Overall, trinidadensis and bleuzeni have brownish elytra and morishimai has bright yellow elytra. D. h. bleuzeni frequently exhibits tubular cephalic point. Some scientists see D. h. trinidadensis and D. h. bleuzeni as same subspecies.

 

戟大兜蟲 杜克斯拉斯亞種 (西班牙語發音)

Dynastes hercules tuxtlaensis Moron 1993

產地 Distribution

墨西哥南部維拉克魯斯州的洛斯杜克斯拉斯及聖塔瑪塔山區。

southern Mexico’s Los Tuxtlas and Santa Marta regions in Veracruz.

特徵 Characteristics

這是一個非常特別的亞種。除了是分布最北的亞種以外,這個亞種以兩隻小型雄蟲發表。沒有人知道大型雄蟲或是雌蟲的長相。透過格羅希博士 (帕斯可亞種發表者) 的幫忙,我有幸和米格爾•莫隆博士 (杜克斯拉斯亞種的發表者) 取得聯繫。他非常熱心地為所有讀者提供了此亞種的高解析度正模標本照片,讓大家看清楚牠的廬山真面目。

This is a very special subspecies. It is the northernmost subspecies and described with only two minor males. No one knows how the major males or females look. With the help of the author of D. h. paschoali Dr. Everardo Grossi, I was able to get in touch with the author of this subspecies Dr. Miguel Angel Moron Rios. He was so generous to provide the readers with high-resolution pictures of the holotype of Dynastes hercules tuxtlaensis.

 

This Dynastes hercules paschoali is 140 mm.

戟大兜蟲 帕斯可亞種

Dynastes hercules paschoali Grossi et Arnaud 1993

產地 Distribution

巴西東南部。

southeast Brazil.

特徵 Characteristics

胸角之角突出現於距離根部大約全角長1/3的距離。頭角不長角突。角末有或無回現象。

thoracic denticles located about 1/3 into the thoracic horn. Lacks cephalic denticle. Apex hooked or unhooked.

 

 

This Dynastes hercules takakuwai is 129 mm. This photograph was taken by Dr. Everardo Grossi.

戟大兜蟲 高桑氏亞種

Dynastes hercules takakuwai Nagai 2002

產地 Distribution

巴西西部。

west Brazil.

特徵 Characteristics

胸角之角突出現於距離根部大約全角長1/4的距離。胸角角突不明顯。頭角不長角突或是只有一點點痕跡。角尖向前斜出,有些個體幾乎不長角尖。角末無回鉤現象。

thoracic denticles located about 1/4 into the thoracic horn. Thoracic denticles not obvious. No cephalic denticle or only slight traces. Cephalic point inclined forward. Some individuals almost lack cephalic point. Apex unhooked.